Hazard Analysis In Food
Hazard Analysis In Food
Food is a source of energy and other nutrients to support human life. But food can also become a vehicle for human health nuisance elements, which form a natural element that has become part of the food, and went into the food in a certain way. In general, the danger arising from the food is often referred to as food poisoning. Hazards may occur through the elements of microorganisms, chemical or natural. The disease is caused by the above three elements are classified into three types, namely:
1. Food related diseases caused by microbes that contaminate food and entering the body, then live and multiply, and cause infection in the digestive tract (food infection).
2. Food related diseases caused by poison / toxin produced by microbes in the food (food poisoning). Genesis intoxication is not always accompanied the entry of microbes into the body.
3. Diseases caused by food are not microbes, but the chemicals and natural elements.
Microbes are everywhere, both in soil, dust, water or air. Most of these microbes are harmless, but many also can cause infection in humans and animals. In certain circumstances the microbes can multiply and infect the body tissue and can spread between humans to humans, animals or animals with contagious from animal to human or otherwise, directly or through food. Food becomes toxic because it has been contaminated by certain microbes, and microbes that produce enough toxins that may harm consumers
Food is generally the source of infection and poisoning by food bacteria are classified as low acidity like meat, eggs, milk and their products. Which includes bacteria that cause food infections include Salmonella, Clostridium perfringens, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, and Vibrio cholerae.
Salmonella can be found in food because of contamination. Some sources of contamination include animal waste during cutting, feces, or from water polluted wastewater containing Salmonella. Contamination can also occur indirectly, such as food contamination by Salmonella by human hands or tools used.
Salmonella found in poultry and eggs, flies, mice and cockroaches. Turkeys, ducks and geese can be infected by different types of Salmonella which can be found in feces, eggs and so on. Products such as whole egg, egg powder and liquid eggs, need special attention because of potential as a source of Salmonella. Other food contaminated with Salmonella often is the fish meat and milk and processed products such as sausage, ham, smoked fish, fresh milk, ice cream, chocolate milk.
Salmonella poisoning symptoms are fever, headache, diarrhea, and vomiting. The incubation period from 5 to 72 hours, usually 12 to 36 hours after eating foods containing Salmonella.
Diseases caused by these bacteria is gastroenteritis (intestinal disorder), with symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and the formation of toxic gases released from the digestive tract. The bacteria are relatively sensitive to heat and can deactivated at 60 ° C for 10 minutes. Symptoms occur within 8 – 24 hours after eating foods that contain these microbes.
Clostridium perfringens are scattered in the chicken and beef cooked. Other foods that may be contaminated are fish, poultry, dairy products, dry foods, soups, gravies, spices, gelatin, spaghetti, pasta, flour and soy protein.
Outbreaks of gastroenteritis by Vibrio parahaemolyticus common in Japan due to the consumption habits of the people contaminated fish and other sea products are raw. Seafood such as fish, shellfish, crabs, and shrimp are common foodstuffs infected with Vibrio parahaemolyticus.
The incubation period from 2 to 48 hours, usually 12 hours. Symptoms that arise are abdominal pain, diarrhea (watery feces and contain blood), nausea and vomiting, mild fever, and headache. Patients will recover after 2 – 5 days.
These bacteria normally (komensal) present in the bowel tract / small children and healthy adults and the number could reach 109 CFU / g. These bacteria are known as microbial indicators of faecal contamination and are divided into two groups, namely non pathogenic and pathogenic. There are four groups of pathogenic causes of diarrhea, namely EPEC (Enterophatogenic Escherichia coli), ETEC (Enterotoksigenic Escherichia coli), EIEC (Enteroinvasif Escherichia coli) and VTEC (verotoksin producing Escherichia coli).
Disease caused by EPEC group is watery diarrhea accompanied by vomiting and fever. Diarrhea often is cured itself, but EPEC can cause prolonged chronic enteritis that interfere with growth. EPEC is generally associated with babies and children under the age of 3 years.
Disease caused by ETEC is watery diarrhea with abdominal cramps, fever, malaise and vomiting. In very severe forms of infection by ETEC strains can produce a clinical picture that resembles diarrhea caused by V. cholerae, the rice water stool. ETEC is a major cause of diarrhea for infants in developing countries and diarrhea in people who are traveling from winter climates with good hygiene standards to tropical regions with hygiene standards are lower.
EIEC group causes diarrhea resemble clinical basiler often caused by Shigella. Initially acute diarrhea and watery, accompanied by fever and stomach cramps, continues until the phase of the colon (large intestine) with bloody stools and mukoid. Not all EIEC infection phase continues until the colon, so the blood does not always detected in feces. EIEC attack colonic mucosa and multiply in the cell-cell spread to neighboring cells after the cells are infected through lysis.
VTEC causes hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic uremik syndrome (HUS). HC Symptoms often begin with abdominal pain and watery diarrhea followed by bloody diarrhea without fever generally. Well bloody diarrhea or not, followed by the emergence of HUS. HUS occurs in all age groups but most common in children. VTEC is the tool of the intestinal tract of cows and other animals.
Contamination of food derived from food manager or employee from contact with water containing human waste. Infection of healthy adults need a dose of at least 108 cells either through food or water contaminated.
Bacillus cereus causes gastroenteritis in humans. The symptoms of nausea, stomach cramps, watery diarrhea, and vomiting for one day or less. Food is often contaminated serelia, flour, spices, starch, puddings, sauces, and fried rice.
Vibrio cholerae causes cholera outbreak, while the van Eltor Vibrio cholerae causes cholera disease eltor. The way it works is by attacking the intestinal lining and causes diarrhea and vomiting. Transmission of these bacteria through the water, fish and seafood.
Type of bacteria that cause food intoxication is Clostridium botulinum, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas cocovenenans. Toxins produced by bacteria more heat resistant than the bacteria itself.
Poisoning is caused by bacteria called “botulism”. Toxins produced can cause death. Symptoms begin with an acute indigestion, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mental and physical weakness, dizziness and headaches, vision turned into two, difficulty in swallowing and speaking, the muscles become paralyzed and death is usually due to difficulty in breathing. In fatal cases, death can occur from 3 to 6 days.
Intoxication generally occurs in low acidity canned food. Canned food that causes botulism is often sweet corn, beets, asparagus and spinach. Botulism also may occur in smoked fish.
Symptoms of poisoning Staphylococcus aureus is a lot of saliva, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhea and mucus, headaches, muscle cramps, cold sweats, weakness, shortness of breath, body temperature below normal. These symptoms lasted 1 – 2 days, death is rare.
Especially the human nasal cavity contains many sinusitis sufferers staphylococci, as well as with ulcers and suppurating wounds are a potential source. Patient dairy cow mastitis (infection of the udder) to transmit staphylococci in milk.
Bacterium S. aureus that has been entered into the food, can be turned off by heating the cooking time, but the toxins they produce can only be unraveled if the heating for several hours, or heated at a temperature of 115 ° C for 30 minutes. Food is heated at this temperature of course will change the texture and nutrient content damage is relatively great.
Bongkrek poisoning is a disease for this type of poisoning by this bacteria. Pseudomonas cocovenenans Bongkrek often contaminate tempe. Bongkrek tempe is made from fermented coconut pulp and fungus Rhizopus oligosporus. At tempe failed and fragile, in addition to Rhizopus oligosporus usually grow well the type of bacteria called Pseudomonas cocovenenans. The bacteria is what causes the formation of toxins in tempe Bongkrek and harmful if consumed by humans.
Bongkrek poisoning patients characterized by hypoglycemia, spasma / seizures, and unconscious. Patients with hypoglycemia usually died 4 days after consuming poisonous Bongkrek tempe.
Food poisoning caused by microorganisms other than that derived from soil, water, air, animals and humans can also be derived from natural ingredients that is from animals, plants and chemicals. Toxins are in a natural food because it is toxic components of food, eg poison mushrooms, toxic cassava, fish poison, jengkol, and so on.
Mushrooms poison is sometimes difficult to distinguish from edible mushrooms, so those who do not know the characteristics of plants often taken the wrong mushrooms poisonous mushrooms that cause food poisoning and can cause death.
Several types of poisonous mushrooms which resemble the mushroom Amanita muscaria that produce toxins and muskarin Amanita phalloides mushrooms that produces toxins phallin. The incubation period is relatively quick between 15 minutes to 15 hours. Symptoms of mushroom poisoning are abdominal pain, thirst arises, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, body becomes weak, sometimes accompanied by tears and can end in death.
Jengkol derived from plant origin lobatum Pithecolobium usually consumed in the form of emping jengkol, as a vegetable side dish and as a raw form. Jengkol can cause poisoning if consumed too much. Jengkol have distinctive odor that is not delicious. The cause of poisoning is jengkolat acid. Jengkolat acid crystal form roset needles, easily soluble in acid or alkaline, soluble in hot water, hardly soluble in water, which can cause blockage in the urinary tracts and disruption of renal function.
Symptoms of poisoning is jengkol flatulence, nausea, sometimes accompanied by vomiting and unable to defecate. Arising pain (colic) in the waist or around the navel and sometimes accompanied by seizures. Urine little peculiar smell jengkol, sometimes mixed with red and white like rice washing water in the urine because there are red blood cells and white blood cells and in severe poisoning jengkol can not urinate at all because the channel is blocked by crystal urine jengkolat acid.
The cause of poisoning cyanide cassava is found both in leaves and cassava tubers. Cyanide would inhibit the transport of oxygen by red blood cells. Cassava poisoning symptoms such as cyanide poisoning is usually nausea, vomiting, dizziness, difficulty breathing and had to draw a deep breath, rapid heartbeat, and then passed out and could end in death.
Several types of sea fish and fresh water found in the internal organs contain toxins that can cause death to the victim of poisoning. Poisonous fish is the famous fish wrapping. Wrapping the fish’s body slightly rounded belly is not flat, teeth that grow berendeng jaws together and only separated by a small gap in the middle, so that looks like a four-toothed. The cause of poisoning in fish is toxic tetrodoksin wrapping from among neurotoksin (attacking the nerves) is highly toxic and contained in the ovaries and liver. Symptoms of poisoning occur 30 minutes to several hours after eating poisonous fish in the form of a tingling sensation around the mouth, thumbs, fingers and toes, and often followed by numbness in the legs, joint pain, itching, sweating, nausea, vomiting, muscle paralysis, respiratory disturbed and can end in death.
Certain types of oysters known to contain toxins that attack the nerve (neurotoxin) and these toxins are not destroyed by heat. Symptoms of acute poisoning occur 5 to 30 minutes after eating shellfish or can also occur 24 – 48 hours after eating shellfish or shrimp allegedly poisoned. Shellfish poisoning symptoms can be seen with a tingling sensation around the mouth, nausea, vomiting, stomach twisting, muscles weaken, the body was paralyzed and could end in death due to respiratory disturbed.
Heavy metals into the food because of the pollution at the time of planting, maintenance, post-harvest storage and processing. Also contamination can also occur through the cooker containing hazardous metals and experienced erosion surface.
Mercury poisoning may occur due to disposal of industrial waste containing mercury into the sea or rivers and polluting fish and the like who live in seawater. If the river water is used as a source of drinking water without removing mercury processing so that water can cause chronic mercury poisoning. Mercury poisoning can also occur through the use of fungicides that are not in accordance with the instructions of use, so contaminating foodstuffs such as rice, meat, or the use of fungicides in error, because the label is not clear.
Symptoms of mercury poisoning is a burning sensation in the mouth, metallic taste, lots of drooling and thirst, abdominal pain, vomiting, liquid stool containing blood, the pulse rapid but weak, pale, weak legs, decreased vision, coma and death over premises.
Copper and brass metal used widely used in containers or cookware such as pans, kettle, and the tank to drink. If the acidic food or processed in the container carbonate copper, some metallic copper will erode and dissolve in food that can cause poisoning. Copper as a chemical compound is also used in fungicides or insecticides such as copper and copper sulfate oksiklorida, these compounds can cause toxicity when mixed into the food, because the spraying is not appropriate instructions that leave a lot of residue in food.
The incubation period is relatively quick one hour or less. Symptoms of copper poisoning are headache, cold sweat, weak pulse, sweet taste and smell of metal in the mouth, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, convulsions and coma.
Arsenic is widely used as an insecticide compound, which is mixed with pentoksida arsenic trioxide and copper chromium oxide. Arsenic can cause poisoning due to storage or the spraying of insecticides that are not in accordance with the instructions. Arsenic poisoning symptoms usually occur ½ – 1 hour after the arsenic poisoning. But can also occur within a few hours, especially if the food poisoning. Symptoms of arsenic poisoning are vomiting, diarrhea and may end in death.
Cooking utensils made of tin or zinc coated steel can cause metal poisoning due to zinc eroded and dissolved in food. Zinc poisoning incubation period of about 1 hour. Symptoms of zinc poisoning are headache, drooling, thirst, vomiting and diarrhea.
Antimony poisoning can occur because the cooker is made of alloy metals containing antimony. Foods that contain acid can erode and dissolve the antimony that contaminate food. Incubation period of several minutes to several hours. Symptoms arising from antimony poisoning are headache, vomiting, cramps and fainting.
Poisoning food and beverages by cadmium compounds occurs because the surface of food containers lined with cadmium eroded and dissolved into the food. Incubation period of 1 hour less. Symptoms caused by cadmium poisoning is a pale, vomiting, convulsions, fainting and can be terminated by death.
Fluoride poisoning can occur due to insecticide residues in food due to insecticide spraying. Insectisida one containing Na fluoride is a mixture of boric acid, arsenic pentoksida dihydrate, sodium dichromate and sodium borate tetra pentahidrat. The incubation period is about 1 hour or less. Cause symptoms of fluoride poisoning pale, vomiting, convulsions, fainting and ends with death.
Cyanide poisoning can occur because glisten material containing silver cyanide compound and attached to the hand that can contaminate food causing food poisoning. The incubation period between 35 minutes to 6 hours. Symptoms caused by cyanide poisoning are fatigue, cold sweat, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, possibly ending with death.
Lead is used in metal alloys such as tin, solder while compound widely used in insecticides for fruits and vegetables. Use cooking utensils that contain lead can cause poisoning, since eroded and dissolved metals into the food. Incubation period for 30 minutes. Symptoms that may be caused by lead poisoning are headache, vomiting and possible death.
Nitrite is used other than as a preservative in meat and also gives a red color. Nitrite poisoning can occur because of past use of the maximum limit the use, wrong use and accidentally mixed due to negligence and ignorance. Nitrite poisoning symptoms can be seen with blood pressure drops suddenly, nausea, vomiting, chills, convulsions lips, and fingertips turned blue, collapse and death.
Pesticides are widely used to protect plants and crops but can cause food poisoning / contamination in food and the environment because of residues left behind. Directly or indirectly due to pesticides can contaminate inhaled through breathing or digested with food and drinking water. Pollution of water can occur because the rest of pesticides or spraying the marshes or rice fields.
Early symptoms of the patient appeared anxious, headaches, fatigue, muscle twitches and spasms. Could further disrupt the workings of the brain system that is neurotoxic.
Some things that need to be done to prevent food poisoning is to use strict hygiene standards. In aesthetics, good food is the food that when prepared should be in a hygienic condition. The purpose of food hygiene is to prevent microbial contamination of food causes food poisoning and prevent the multiplication of microbes cause food poisoning.
Food poisoning is caused by three sources of human, environmental, and food ingredients.
This person needs to be done to prevent contamination of food is necessary to wash hands before food processing because bacteria S. aureus can be attached to the skin surface.
Proper hand washing can reduce the risk of transfer of Salmonella bacteria and C. perfringens from feces to food. On food companies have rules that require employees to wash their hands after smoking, coughing, sneezing, and after using a handkerchief.
According to the rules of food hygiene, hand washing facilities which must be equipped laundry tub with hot water and cold water, no soap, nail brush, tissue or hand dryers. In addition, workers should not use jewelry and long nails, must wear protective clothing is always washed regularly, cloth head cover, as well as health care.
A clean environment to support health, so in addition to the kitchen to watch out for cleanliness, processing equipment must always be washed regularly. Washing is best done by using a tub containing washing detergents, wash tub of cold water containing a disinfectant, and rinse water bath. Rinse temperature should be between 77 to 100 oC.
Buildings should be designed with either the wall or floor must be easy to clean, but it must have adequate ventilation.
Food handling needs to be done with caution. Meat (beef, lamb) and poultry should be cooked perfectly to bacterial pathogens and spores die. Cooking time should be long enough to ensure the achievement of temperatures that can damage the bacteria and spores. If food is stored in hot conditions before serving, then the temperature must be above 63 oC in order not to breed bacteria. Meanwhile, in a cold dish, then the temperature is below 10 oC until served.
If the hot food will be presented again later, it must be cooked quickly before it is placed in the refrigerator. Food should not be directly inserted into the refrigerator because heat will move on to other foods stored and bacteria multiply.
Some food products such as canned foods, dry foods should be stored in a refrigerator because cooling is a method for controlling microbial growth. Nearly all pathogenic bacteria can only reproduce themselves with the slow rate at temperatures below 10 oC, because the food was stored in the refrigerator is safe.
Meat and fish should be stored in the coldest part of refrigerator, the freezer section. As for fruits and vegetables either stored at temperatures slightly higher at the bottom of the fridge. Raw food should be separated by processed foods (which Sudak cooked) to avoid cross-contamination of bacteria cause food poisoning.
Disbursement of frozen foods (fish or meat) must be done carefully, which is allowed to thaw frozen foods at cold temperatures, preferably in the refrigerator. Do not be dissolved in warm water because it will encourage the growth of microbes.
To conduct a thorough investigation is required of a good investigation system that is supported by human resources as well as a good laboratory. A good investigation will provide meaningful results, so the investigation can cause poisoning and confirmed handling errors that cause of accidental poisoning that can be used as a guide for improving a process or about general policy handling or processing of food to a similar incident does not happen again.
Poisoning investigation system is needed to clear which institutions are responsible for an investigation and the authority possessed by these institutions and to whom reports should be given. Investigation team should consist of a group of people who come from various institutions over the lead by a competent person. The team must get information about the objectives, procedures and programs and the importance of investigative skills must be honed in order to perform the role / duties well during the investigation.
In addition to the team and the institution of clear duties and responsibilities, need to develop a good operating procedures and agreed upon by all parties, a reference laboratory with a known analytical skills and if necessary the expert group as a resource. It is important to establish who, who will move when a poisoning is reported, who will perform interviews, who is entitled to hold samples of an alleged cause of poisoning, or even to take samples for clinical investigations. In these systems, there should be publicity department to provide an appropriate explanation and no buzz about the food poisoning incident. In addition, the investigation should also be published in the form of scientific research in scientific publications to be learning the material.
Investigation of food poisoning especially made to narrow the cause of poisoning, food poisoning can be caused by the thousands of strains of bacteria and various toxins produced either by microbial or chemical materials that intentionally or unintentionally added to a food production chain from upstream processes (harvesting) up to the downstream (processing, packaging and so on). In the execution of the activities of candidates to narrow the cause of poisoning is done either through interviews mapun objective analysis on laboreatorium
Interviews with victims of poisoning is a strategic step that could lead an investigation team to the cause of poisoning most likely. Therefore, in addition to meet the rules of interviewing techniques to get results actually possible, the substance of interviews in the investigation of poisoning should also contain questions that are relevant that could lead to a variety of epidemiological data for analysis as the dominant symptom, time of onset, and type – types of food consumed in the last 72 hours. Epidemiological analysis and proper interpretation of the symptoms of poisoning, time of onset, type of food processing techniques with the understanding that is vulnerable to poisoning a certain contaminants, counting a food specific attack rates, as well as current knowledge about the types of contaminants are many causes of food poisoning can lead the team investigation on the type of suspect food poisoning and causes the most possible. In a banquet for example, typically presented a variety of side dishes, appetizers or dessert. A good interview results should be 2-5 lead investigator on the type of food most likely in accordance with the symptoms, time of onset, and the technology that allegedly causes food poisoning it.
The results of analysis of good interviews to be an important capital in the implementation of laboratory tests. In fact the number of samples available in the food poisoning is often very limited for the purposes of this analysis for several potential causes of poisoning. Important note here that the cause of poisoning in the analysis could only be obtained if the analysis carried out against him, except for typical symptoms of poisoning with one type of food poisoning known as Bongkrek tempe, fish, bloated and others. If the analysis is only done for microbes A, for example, it would not be concluded that the microbial B-poisoning was the cause. In Europe and the United States, for example, today reported that Campylobacter jejuni is the biggest cause of food poisoning. Given the complexity of this bacterial test high enough, these bacteria likely not tested in poisoning incidents, so that although but poisoning may occur due to C. jejuni in Indonesia may not appear in the results of the investigation.
Understanding of cause and type of food poisoning is important, especially when it comes a variety of pathogens “emerging”. For example, if the interview results indicate the possibility of spore is a bacteria that causes food poisoning cause in development materials mature protein, then more precise analysis focused on the Clostridium perfringens than Bacillus cereus, although they produce spores. If vomiting emerged as the main symptoms of food poisoning, with the onset of the short time (less than 1 hour) then the analysis of bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin or B. cereus would be more appropriate.
In laboratory analysis, important to know the mode of a particular contaminant microbes in causing toxicity. Are these bacteria cause infection? Is this bacterium causes intoxicity? Is required for a large number of these bacteria in causing toxicity? This will provide input on whether the qualitative analysis alone is sufficient or necessary quantitative analysis, and also whether the analysis of metabolites (toxins) is required. For the laboratory analysis should be the use of standardized methods of analysis and power analysis of highly-skilled in order to obtain consistent results. Especially for poisoning because the microbes, it is important to use analytical methods approach the closest target. Prediction for the analysis phase Escherichia coli in lactose broth for example be able to bring the analysis to find E. coli, but this phase also negate E. Certain strains of Escherichia coli O157: H7, so on the condition of E. coli O157: H7 is suspected to cause toxicity, prediction stage in lactose broth should be modified, for example by the use of antibiotics.
Another important thing in the investigation of poisoning is handling the sample. If the toxin is the cause of chemical poisoning, the compound is generally stable during storage. However, if the microbe is a prime candidate cause of poisoning the correct handling of samples must be carried out. This is to avoid the “loss” cause of poisoning in the analysis because the sample storage at room temperature for example can cause the growth of other bacteria cause so as inhibiting the growth of food poisoning. In other conditions, freezing storage temperatures, also can eliminate bacteria such as C. fragile jejuni. Foreclosure samples by the police should consider this aspect, because the samples are at room temperature for > 12 hours may be irrelevant for the purposes of microbiological analysis.
Laboratory investigations will be able to give a good picture of what contaminants most likely cause of accidental poisoning. However, often this can not be applied because of lack of food samples. In cases like this the laboratory analysis of clinical samples (vomit, blood, feces victim) to be the only source of laboratory analysis. With reference to the results of interviews, the analysis of clinical samples can also to take to a group of “candidate cause of poisoning”. Epidemiological investigation methods and case control cohort to be important to determine the cause of poisoning candidates. If a specific microbe as the cause of food poisoning suspected, the analysis can become complex because in feces, for example, may be found in various types of microbes. In such circumstances, further analysis for example by serotyping, ribotyping, resistotyping (resistance to certain antibiotics) into the options for connecting the clinical symptoms, type of food, and the type of bacterial strain most likely to cause poisoning,
In ideal conditions, the results can be investigasiu maximum when relationship between clinical symptoms, types of microbes in food samples or clinical samples accordingly. In the investigation confirmed the results like that, it needs to do more advanced investigation in place / facilities such system food. Analysis of the processing is aimed to do reconstruction about how food poisoning was the cause of the poisoning produced in place. By using the data of laboratory analysis conducted by the investigation documenting the process, personnel and practices that are happening that can be made a scenario about at what stage and why hazardous materials (chemical or microbial) can be in food. This information is important to be able to improve suatru process step or procedure in the food industry and food industry alike.
Of this writing, we know that the investigation of poisoning is not something simple job but a job-level complex with a very high difficulty. In poisoning cases, asking the media often causes poisoning when poisoning occurs, which of course will not receive a satisfactory answer because the necessary investigative steps to answer the question correctly. It is therefore important for the government to have a reliable investigative team equipped with adequate resources, good cooperation system with the parties to give priority mail shipping and samples poisoned with the police for poisoning treatment can be carried out sampling well, the team publicist who can continue to provide a transparent explanation to the public and scientific publications on poisoning cases happened to be learning material for food industry and researchers.
I dedicate this blog for my beloved brothers and sisters around the world. Visit my Blog at